Dictionary of Islamic Terms


A-immah: Plural of Aalim / Leaders.

Aalim: A learned man.

Aalims: Leaders

Aamul Huzn: Year of sorrow.

Aaquil: Sane.

Adhaan: The call to salaah / prayers

Adl: justice and Equity. A fundamental value governing all social behavior and forming the basis of all social dealings and legal framework. Its antonym is Zulm or injustice or inequity. In personal life it is often treated by Muslim moralists to be a minimum requirement of becoming a faithful Muslim, the desirable being, being the degree of ihsan, generosity. Thus giving anyone his due is adl but giving him more than his due, voluntarily, is IHSAN.

Afdal: The best.

Ahad: One.

Ahkams: Laws, values and ordinances

Ahlul Bayt: Family of the Prophet's household.

Ahlur Rushd: Discerning people.

Ajrul Mithl: A remuneration based on what is customary in the community

Akhirah: Hereafter.

Akhras: A mute person.

Al Firaq: The separation.

Al Khula: The separation between husband and wife by a pronouncement which includes monetary settlement.

Al Risalah: The message which is sent by messenger.

Al Sarah: The releasing/liberating of the marital bond.

Al Talaq Bil Kitabati Ilal Gha-ib: The talaq in written form to one who is not present.

Al Talaqu Bil Isharah: The divorce by indication.

Al-Aamilu-Alaz-Zakaah: Tax collector.

Al-Ameen: The trustworthy.

Al-Ma'danu War Rikaaz: Minerals and buried treasures.

al-Mu'awwidhatayn: The last two surahs of the Qur'an, i.e. Surah al-Falaq and Surah an-Nas.

Al-Mut-ah: The gift given to a wife.

Al-Na-Am: Livestock.

al-Qullays: The church which Abrahah built in San'a, intending to divert Arabs from the Ka'bah in Makkah to it.

Alaihis Salaam: May Allah's peace be upon him.

Allah: The Creator and Sustainer of all. The supreme being. "The Uncaused Cause of all that exists; the Eternal."

Amaanah: Something given to someone for safekeeping. Trust.

Ameen: May Allah accept.

Ansar: Helpers - title of the people of Madinah who helped the Prophet and his Companions when they migrated from Makkah to Madinah.

Aqd: A contract.

Aqd Saheeh: A legal contract

Aqeemah: A woman who cannot have children.

Aqeeqah: The hair which is shaven off from the head of a new born baby when a sacrificial animal is offered.

Ar-Riqaab: The slaves.

Araadib: A specified measure i.e. 4 Araadib and 2 kilos = 61.36 kg.

Arafat: The plain in Mecca where all pilgrims gather on the 9th day of Thul Haj.

Arba-ah: Four.

Arkans: Principles.

as-Sihah: The authentic books of Hadith.

Asid: Violable

Asl: Origin/source/Root

Asr: Late afternoon prayer.

Ath-har: More distinct/more manliest (authentic).

Athar: Traditions of the Holy Prophet's companions

Awaaq: (Of silver) 200 Dirhams.

Awsaq: A measure equivalent to 60 Saa's approximately. One Saa = 3 Kg approximately

Ayah (pi. Ayaat): Verse(s) of the Holy Qur'an.

Ayt Al-Maal: The concept of the Bayt-al-Maal implies that the money paid into the treasury are in Allah's trust and become the common property of the Muslims and that the head of the state merely holds the position of a trustee whose duty it is to expand the funds of the Bayt-al-Maal on the common concern of all its people. Thus the Bayt-al-Maal is responsible for collecting the revenues of the state and expanding them for the welfare of the people.

Ayyam at-Tashriq: The three days (11th, 12th, 13th) of the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.

Ayyam-e-Jahilliyah: Period of ignorance.

Az-Zuru-U-Wath Thimaar: Vegetables and fruit


Ba-in: Irrevocable.

Bab: (Door) Subject.

Bairu-Haa: The name of a garden in Madinah.

Baligh: One who is mature (Compelled by law).

Banoo Haashim: The children of Hashim.

Baqar: Cows

Batil: Null and void.

Bay: Sale - also used as a prefix in referring to different types of sale -- Mu'ajjal, Muraabahah, Tawliyah, Wadi'ah

Bay mu'aijal: Sale against deferred payment, either in a lump sum or instalments.

Bay muqayada: Exchange of goods for goods with certain conditions

Bay salam: An exceptional contract of sale causing an immediate payment of the price and admitting a delay in the delivery of the goods generally the crop produce. As a rule, the Holy Prophet (may Peace Be Upon Him) is reported to have forbidden the sale of what is not in one's actual possession. Bay Salam is an exception to the above rule. It is declared as valid, subject to the condition that the quality and the nature of the article of sale and the time and place of delivery and the price are clearly defined at the time of making the contract of such a sale.

Bay't-ar-Ridwan: The Pledge of the Pleasure. The Pledge which took place at al-Hudaybiyyah and upon which Allah the Almighty revealed a special verse of the Qur'an to express His Pleasure with those believers who gave their allegiance to the Prophet.

Bayhaqiy: The name of a noted leader in the science of Hadeeth.

Baytul-Maal: The Muslim public treasury.

Baytullah: The Holy Ka'ba - The House of Allah.

Bint-Laboon: A two year old colt.

Bint-Makhaad: A yearling camels colt.

"BismikAllahumma: In your name, o Allah!

Buraaq: Conveyance of Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.) during Mi'raaj.

Dafeenul Jahiliy-yah: Buried treasure during the days of paganism.

Dakhn:: Any of several cereal plants bearing a large crop of minute nutritious seeds.

Daroorah: Necessity.

Darul-harb: An area or vicinity at war with Muslims. A state under non-Muslim sovereignty.

Dayn: Anything outstanding on anybody. Debt.

Dean: Religion.

Dhul-Hijjah: The month of Hajj. Twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.

Dhul-Qadah: The eleventh month of the Islamic calendar.

Dinars: Money/Coins.

Dirhams: Coins (Eastern).

Diyah: Blood money to be paid.

Diyanah: Religiously.

Diyanatan: By way of religion.

Dua: Supplication to Allah. Invocation.

Dunya: World/Earth.

Eejab: The pronouncement which the wally gives over to the opposing party. Form of speech.

Eela: Abandonment (for his swearing).

Eemaan: Faith.

Eid: Day of festival.

Fa-idah: Benefit

Fajr: Morning prayer, which is offered after dawn and before sunrise. Dawn.

Falas: Bankrupt

Faqeer: Poor.

Faraq: Another word that is used as a substitute for talaq which means separation.

Fard (pi. Faraaidh): Obligatory. Compulsory.

Fardu Ayn: A compulsion on every Muslim male and female

Fasakh: When a marriage contract is annulled from the side of wife.

Fasid: Wrong (null and void).

Fatwa: Verdict.

Fay: Spoils of war.

Fee Sabeelil Laah: In the way of Allah.

Fiddah: Silver.

Fijar: Sacrilegious war. This battle took place among the Arabs before Islam. It was given this name because it violated the sacredness of the Haram and the sacred months. These months were regarded as sacred and respected among the Arabs even before Islam.

Fiqh: Jurisprudence.

Firqatu Fashkin: Dissolution by annulment.

Firqatu Talaqin: Dissolution by divorce.

Fitnah: Dissension/trial/tribulation.

Fuqahaa: Jurists.

Ghaarim: A person in debt.

Ghaban Fahish: Exorbitant price or rate of profit charged by the seller, agent or middleman.

Gharar: "(Lit. Risk, Hazard, Uncertainty) Technically it signifies the contract or transaction in which the object of contract or the commodity is not determined for both or either contracting party and thus the contract involves an element of risk and uncertainty. Examples are the sale of fish in the water which has not been caught or of a bird in the air or of a foetus in the womb (hable-al-habla). The sale of milk in the udder is also termed ""gharar"". It is also applicable in cases where the gain of one partner in a business is guaranteed but that of the other remains uncertain. All transactions involving gharar are unlawful in Islam."

Ghayru Mujbir: representative who cannot marry a woman without her consent.

Ghazwah Dhat ar-Riqa: The battle of the rugs. This name was given to this battle because the people who took part were bare footed and the land was rough so, when their feet became blistered, they bandaged them with torn-up strips of clothing.

Ghusl: Full bath or body wash .

Hadan: Minerals.

Hadd: Restrictions

Hadeeth: Narration's and reports of the deeds and sayings of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.).

Hajj: Pilgrimage to Makkah during the month of Dhul Hijjah.

Hajjat al-Balagh: The Pilgrimage of conveying the message.

Hajjat al-Wada: The Farewell Pilgrimage - when the Prophet bade farewell to his Ummah.

Hajre Aswad: The black stone embedded in the wall of the holy Ka'bah.

Hakamayn: Two hakims.

Hakim: One who issues decrees (magistrate).

Halaal: Anything permitted by the Shariah (Islamic Law). Lawful.

Hanifiyyah: To devote oneself fully to Allah and completely surrender to His will. This is the name of the religion of Prophet Ibrahim [peace and blessings be upon him).

Haraam: Anything prohibited by the Shariah.

Haram Hurma Mu-abbad: A haraam decree forever binding.

Haram Hurmatum Mu Aqqatah: A haram decree which lasts only for a certain period.

Haram Shareef: The area where the holy Ka'bah is situated.

Hawaazin: A tribe of Arabs who live in Taif-Arabia.

Hejaz: The original name given to Arabia.

Hijr: Known as Hatim. it is the half-walled area attached to the Ka'bah which is also called Hijr-Isma'il and Hijr al-Ka'bah.

Hijrah: Migration of the Holy Prophet from Mecca to Madinah. To leave ones place of residence for the sake of Allah.

Hikmah: Wisdom.

Hilf al-Fudul (the alliance of excellence): This alliance was called hilf al-Fudul, due to the excellence of the contents of this agreement.

Hilful Fudhool: A pledge taken to help the orphans and widows.

Hiqqah: A three year old camel's colt.

Hubal: One of the major idols in pre-Islamic Arabia.

Hukum: Decree.

Hurmatul Musaharah: Family ties which are haram through marriage .

Ibaadah: Worship.

Ibil: Camel.

Ihraam: Condition during which Muslims are forbidden to do and wear certain things while performing Hajj and Umrah.

Ijmaa: Consensus among the learned leaders among Muslims throughout the world.

Imaan: Faith

Imam: The person who leads the prayer; also refers to the leader of Muslims. Leader.

Iqaamah: Call to prayer made inside the Masjid just before the start of fard salaah.

Isha: The night prayer.

Islam: The religion of submission to the will of Allah. The religion of Muslims.

Israaf: Waste.

Istinjaa: Cleansing of the private parts after passing stools or urine.

Jahannam: Hell.

Jahiliyyah: The age of Ignorance, This name was given to the period between Prophet Isa and the Prophet Muhammad when people forgot the teachings of the Prophets, and violated the religious sanctities.

Jam'aah: Congregation; group of Muslims.

Jamrat al-'Aqabah: The symbol of the ritual of stoning Shaytan in Mina which is located near 'Aqabah.

Jamrat al-Ula: The first symbol of the ritual of stoning Shaytan in Mina.

Jamrat al-Wusta: The second (medium) symbol of stoning Shaytan.

Jannah: Paradise.

Jibra'eel (as): Angel who brought Allah's revelation to the prophets.

Jibreel: The name of the angel who was sent to the Messenger.

Jihad: To struggle or fight in the way of Allah.

Jinn: They are created by Allah from fire, and are invisible to human beings. They can change their shape. They are air, subject to the Islamic call. Among them there are believers and unbelievers.

Jizyah: The tax which is levied in Muslim states on non-Muslim adult subjects who can afford it in return for security for their lives and property and defending them against their enemies.

Jumad-ul-Ula: The fifth month of the Islamic calendar.

Jumu'ah: The Friday prayer.

Ka'bah: A cube-shaped building re-built by Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail (peace be upon them), the first house built for the worship of Allah. Situated in Makkah, the direction all Muslims face when praying .

Kaafir: A non believer.

Kayl: A measure.

Kharraaj: Land tax.

Khilaal: Passing wet fingers through a beard ,for example, while making wudhu.

Khitbah: Marriage proposal.

Khutbah: The sermon.

Kitaab: Book. It is also referred to as any Heavenly Book including the Holy Qur'an.

Kufffaar: Non believers.

Kunyah:: A type of surname or proper name common in Arabic which means father of so and so or mother

Lajnatul Fatwa: Department issuing verdicts.

Lat: One of the major idols in pre-Islamic Arabia.

Luqatah: Lost property found by another person.

Ma'fuw Wun Anhu: One upon whom certain things are excusable for him.

Maa-ul Mushtaraa: Water that is brought/purchased

Madinah / Yathrib: A city in Arabia where Hazrat Muhammad (saw) is buried.

Madressah:: School; generally refers to the Islamic school.

Maghrib:: The prayer which is performed just after sunset.

Mahroom: One in need/desperate straits.

Majoosis: The fire worshippers.

Makkah: A city in Arabia where the holy Ka'bah is situated.

Makrooh (p1. Makroohaat): An act which is disliked but not forbidden .

Makrooh karahatul tahreem: An abominable action more inclined to haram than to halal.

Malik al Talaq: The one who is empowered with the right of talaq.

Manat:: One of the major idols in pre-Islamic Arabia.

Mandoob: Another word for sunnah.

Mardood: Rejected.

Marhallahs: A distance of 115Km.

Masah: Passing wet hands over a dry area (in Wudhu).

Mashee-ah: Will / choice.

Mashoor: Famous.

Masjid: Place of worship.

Maslahah: What is in the best interest of the public, religion and those concerned.

Maslahatul: What is in the best interest of the Ummah community at large/as a whole.

Matha-hibul Arba-ah: The four procedures of ideology.

Mathab: An adopted procedure of ideology.

Mathhabs: A code of life which is being followed under Islamic law.

Mawla: Refers to master, lord, guardian, protector and friend. This term also applies to a freed slave and to the person who frees the slave.

Madinah: The city of the Holy Prophet in Arabia.

Mi'raaj: Journey of Hazrat Muhammad (saw) to the seven heavens.

Mimbar: Pulpit.

Minaaret: The lofty turret of a Mosque from which the caller i.e the Muaththin calls the people to pray.

Miraaj: Journey to the seven heavens.

Miskeen: Needy

Miswak:: Tooth stick.

Mith-Qaal: A weight which consist of 70 carats.

Moosir: One with adequate means.

Mount Safa: A hilltop in Makkah.

Mozzakkiy: The person discharging the Zakaah.

Mu'azzin: The person who calls the adhaan.

Mu'sir: One in a situation of difficulty.

Mu-adhdhin: The caller of Adhan, inviting Muslims to prayer.

Mu-Allafatu-Quloobuhum: Those whose hearts are inclined towards

Mu-allaq: Suspended.

Mu-amalat: Trade.

Mubah: Permissible

Mubara-ah: Word describing annulment of marriage through monetary agreement.

Mudaf (talaq): The talaq which is attached to the future.

Mudhaarabah: An agreement between two or more persons whereby one or more of them provide finance, while the other/s provide enterpreneurship and management to carry on any business venture whether trade, industry or service with the objective of earning profits. The profit is shared by them in an agreed proportion. The loss is borne by the financiers only in proportion to their share in the total capital.

Mudhaarib: The partner who provides entrepreneurship and management in a Mudhaarabah agreement.

Mufti: One who gives verdicts.

Muhaajireen: Migrators.

Muhajjir: Emigrant; a person who migrates in the way of Allah.

Muhajjirun: Emigrants; title given to Muslims who migrated from Makkah to Madinah.

Mujtahid: One who makes research/independent reasoning.

Mujtahids: Researchers.

Mukallaf: One who is of age - 15 years. Puberty.

Mukatib: A slave who is under contract with his master to pay for his freedom in instalments.

Mukhtar: One who is able to make his own choice.

Mukrih: A person who is coerced to divorce his wife.

Mumay-yiz: One who understands the meaning of an act of worship and its obligations.

Munjiz: immediate implementation.

Murabahah: Sale at a special profit margin. The seller purchases the goods desired by the buyer and sells them at an agreed mark-up price. The payment being settled within an agreed time frame, either in instalments or lump sum. The seller undertakes all management needed for the purchase and also bears the risk for the goods until they have been delivered to the buyer.

Murtad: A Muslim who changed his religion. An apostate.

Musaddiq: The person discharging voluntary charity.

Musallee: A Muslim performing salaah.

Mushrik: A polytheist. One who associates others with Allah.

Muslim: Believers in one Allah and Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.).

Mustahab (p1. Mustahabaat): An act which, if done, is rewarded but if not done there is no sin.

Mut-ah: A gift.

Mutalliq: The man who divorces his wife.

Muwakkil: A nominator.

Naaqidh (pi. Nawaaqidh): A factor which breaks one's Wudhu

Nabi: A prophet.

Nabuwwat: Prophethood.

Nafaqah: Duty of support to a wife and other dependants.

Nafil: Optional or Extra.

Najasah: Impurity.

Najis (pl anjaas; najaarah): Impurity.

Nasab: Family lineage.

Nashizah: A woman who disobeys her husband.

Nawaaqidh: Factors which break one's wudhu and ghusl.

Nifas: The flow of blood for a duration of 40 - 60 days after childbirth.

Nisaab: A specific amount on which Zakaah is taxable.

Nisful Ushr: 1/20.

Niyah: Intention. The formula necessary to render an act of devotion acceptable.

Owrah: Certain parts of the body necessary to be covered at all times.

Qabool: The form of speech of acceptance in the marital contract.

Qada: The performance of an action outside its prescribed time. It can also mean

Qadee: Judge.

Qadr Al Talaq: Number of talaqs.

Qard Hasan: A loan extended without interest or profit-sharing.

Qasd: Resolution/objective/aim .

Qiblah: The direction (towards the Ka'bah in Makkah) Muslims must face when performing Salaah .

Qiyas: Research through comparison.

Quadaa: Paying in a debt.

Qur'an: The Final Revelation from Allah to mankind, revealed to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu alayhi wasallam) .

Qurbaan: The sacrifice which is being offered at Eid-ul-Adha (day of celebration) the day after the pilgrims stood on Mount Arafah in Mecca. This is the 1Oth day of Thul Hijah in the 12th month).

Rabb-Ul-Maal: The one who provides the finance in a Mudhaarabah agreement.

Rabi-al-Awwal: The third month of the Islamic calendar.

Radiallahu-Anha: May Allah be pleased with her.

Rajih: Preferable.

Rak'at: One unit of a prayer.

Ramadhaan: Ninth month of the Islamic calendar.

Rasool: A messenger.

Rasulullah: Messenger of Allah (Prophet Muhammad).

Ratl: A measure used in Baghdad to weigh foodstuffs.

Riba: Literally means increase or addition and refers to the 'premium' that must be paid by the borrower to the lender along with the principal amount as a condition for the loaner OR an extension in its maturity. It is equivalent to interest.

Rikaaz: Buried treasure.

Rooh: Soul.

Rub-ul-Ushr: Quarter of a tenth.

Ruku: Ritual of bowing down in prayer.

Rukun: A principle.

S.A.W.: Abbreviated words Of honour and salutations attached to the name of our Holy Prophet which means may Allah send blessings and salutations on him.

Sa': A cubic measurement of grain which weighs around 3.2kg.

Sa'y: Ritual of running between Safa and Marwah in Hajj and 'Umrah.

Saa': A measure equalling 4 Mudds. 3 kg approx.

Saa-Imah: Animals going to pasture throughout the year.

Sabr: Observing patience.

Sadaq: Dowry.

Sadaqaat: Plural of Sadaqah.

Sadaqah: Voluntary alms to the poor.

Sadd Al Thara-i: Plugging up matters which lead to haraam.

Safaa: A hill in Makkah.

Safar: The second month of the Islamic calendar.

Sah: Correct.

Sahabah: Companion/s of the Nabi S.A.W..

Saheeh: Correct/valid.

Sahib Al-Maal: (Plural ASHAAB AL-MAAL) also Rabb ul-Maal. The financier in the Mudhaarabah form of partnership.

Sajdah-e-Tilaawat: Prostration made whilst reading the Holy Qur'an. There are 14 such prostrations to be made throughout the whole Holy Qur'an.

Sajdah: Prostration in the prayer.

Salaah: Prayer. The second pillar of Islam. To pray five times daily.

Salaatul Eid: Prayer said on Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha.

Salaatul Jumu'ah: Prayer said on Friday instead of Salaatul Zuhr, the midday prayer.

Salatul-Fath: The prayer of thanksgiving to Allah at a time of victory.

Sallallahu alayhi wasallam: """Peace and blessings be upon him"" : Dua made to Allah whenever Rasulullah's name is mentioned."

Sarah: A word used to divorce/release a wife.

Sareeh: Clear, direct (from of speech).

Sayduna: Honorific words preceded the name of a prophet or a companion.

Seeghah: Form of speech/wording from both the bridegroom and the bride or her representative to conclude a marriage.

Sha'abe Abu Talib: Valley of Abu Talib.

Sha-Aa-IrulIslaam: Sacred traditions of the religion.

Shakk: Doubt.

Shaqqus Sadr: The splitting open of the chest of Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W.).

Shariah: Refers to the divine guidance as given by the Qur'an and the Sunnah and embodies all aspects of the Islamic faith, including beliefs and practices.

Shart: Condition, rule.

Shawwal: Tenth month of the Islamic calendar.

Shaytan: Devil.

She'b Abi Talib: Abu Talib's quarters - an area in Makkah in which the Banu Hashim were abandoned when the Quraysh unbelievers boycotted them.

Shirk: The unforgivable sin of joining others with Allah.

Shirkah: Partnerships between two or more persons whereby, unlike Mudarabah, all of them have a share in finance as well as entrepreneurship and management, though not necessarily equally.

Shubu-hah: Judicial error.

Shura: Consultation

Shuroots: Rules.

Sifah: Characteristic.

Sirah: The life of the Prophet Muhammad.

Sittina: Feminine of Saydinna but linked to companions only.

Siwak: Toothbrush

Soorah: A chapter of the Holy Qur'an.

Sudratul Muntaha: Lote tree.

Sujood: Prostration

Sunan: Plural of Sunnah, the way of the Prophet; implies here the supererogatory works of Hajj and general way and manners of Prophets performing the Hajj.

Sunnah: Refers essentially to the Prophet's example as indicated by his practice of the faith. The source is the collection of Ahadith.

Sunnah-Mu-Akkad: A code of life established by the Holy Prophet which is recommended that it be followed.

Surah: A chapter of the Qur'an.

Ta'keed: Confirmation / emphasis

Ta-assuf: Injustice.

Ta-bi-een: Successors of the companions.

Taahir: Clean from impurity.

Tafseer: Commentary / translation.

Tafweed: To delegate.

Tahleel: To make halal.

Taif: A city in Saudi Arabia.

Tais al musta-ar: A pimp.

Talaq: Divorce.

Talaq al hazil: One who divorces a wife in jest.

Talaq al mareed maradul mout: The talaq of one who is terminally ill.

Talaq al Mukhtee: The talaq of one who has made a mistake.

Talaq al Mukrih: The talaq of a person who is coerced to divorce his wife.

Talaq al Murtad: The talaq of the apostate.

Talaq al Safeeh: The talaq of one who is simple or foolish.

Talaq al Sakran: The talaq of the intoxicated person.

Talaq al Sareeh: The direct form of speech.

Talaq al Ta-assuf: Talaq unjustly issued.

Talaq ba-in: An irrevocable talaq.

Talaq ba-in baynoo-natun sughra: A minor irrevocable divorce decree.

Talaq ba-in baynoonatun kubra: A major irrevocable divorce decree i.e. three talaqs were issued.

Talaq bid-iy:: A talaq which is haram.

Talaq Ghayrul Muslim: The talaq of the non-Muslim.

Talaq mu-allaq: A talaq which is suspended.

Talaq mudaf: A talaq which is attached to something.

Talaq munjiz: A talaq, which is immediately implemented.

Talaq raj-ee: A revocable divorce decree.

Talaq Sunniy al-ahsan: The sunnah talaq which is the best.

Talaqul Ghadban: The talaq of one who is extremely angry.

Tamr: Dry dates.

Taqdeem al Shart: A rule/condition brought forward without delay.

Taqwa: Piety - fear of Allah / consciousness in religion.

Tarwiyah: The eighth day of the twelfth month of the Islamic calendar.

Tasamuh: Forbearance, indulgence, tolerance, forgiveness.

Tasbeeh: Praising and glorifying the name of Allah.

Tau-keel: Power of attorney/Power of representation.

Taubah: To repent.

Tauheed: The absolute Oneness of Allah.

Tawaf al-Ifadah / Tawaf az-Ziyarah: The obligatory Tawaf of Hajj.

Tawaf: Circling the Ka'bah in worship.

Tawliyah: Sale at cost without any profit for the seller.

Tayyamum: Substitute for wudhu and ghusl in certain circumstances.

Thawaab: Reward from Allah.

Thay-yib: A divorcee or widow.

Thi-har: Injurious assimilation of wife to her mother/sister etc.

Thimmiy: The name of a non-Muslim living under Muslim sovereignty and paying Jizyah (taxes).

Thulm: Injustice.

Tijaarah: Trade

Udhiyah: The same meaning as Qurbaan.

Ulama: Learned men.

Umm al-Mu'minin: The mothers of the believers - title given to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) because they are regarded as the mothers of all believers.

Ummah: Refers to the whole Muslim community, irrespective of colour, race, language or nationality.

Ummul mu'mineen: Mother of the faithful.

Umrah: Lesser pilgrimage to Makkah , performed at any time of the year.

Umrah al-Qada: The fulfilled 'Umrah - the 'Umrah which the Prophet performed in the seventh year after Hijrah which he intended to do in the sixth year but the Quraysh unbelievers had not allowed him to complete.

Urf: Customary.

Uroodut-Tijaarah: Trade merchandise.

Ushr: Ten percent (in some cases five percent) of the agricultural produce payable by a Muslim as part of his religious obligation, like zakaat, mainly for the benefit of the poor and the needy.

Ushr:: Tenth.

Uzza: One of the major idols in pre-Islamic Arabia.

Waajib (p1. Waajibaat): Compulsory.

Wadee-Ah: Something one is entrusted with.

Wadee-ah: Entrustment.

Wadi-ah: Sale at a loss.

Wajib: Necessary.

Wakeel: Representative.

Waleemah: A wedding feast given by the bride groom after the marriage.

Wally: Representative.

Wally Mujbir: The father and grandfather of a young maiden and who has judicial authority to marry her off to a suitable person without first acquiring her permission and satisfaction.

Waqaf: Endowment.

Waqtu: Time.

Wasiy-yah: Bequest.

Wudhu: Obligatory washing before Salaah and other acts.

Yameen: Oath.

Yathrib: The first name of Madinah.

Zakaah: The amount payable by a Muslim on his net worth as a part of his religious obligation, mainly for the benefit of the poor and the needy.

Zakaatu-rib Hut Tijaarah: Zakaah of profits of merchandise.

Zakaatul: Huboob Zakaah of grain/corn.

Zakaatul Ma'dan: Zakaah of minerals.

Zakaatur Rikaaz: Zakaah of treasure/precious stones.

Zawwal: Mid-day, when the sun is at its Zenith (highest point).

Zil Hijjah: 12th month of the Islamic calendar.

Zina: Adultery.

Zuhr: The afternoon prayer.

Zulm: A comprehensive term used to refer to all forms of inequity, injustice, exploitation, oppression, and wrong doing, whereby a person either deprives others of their rights or does not fulfill his obligations towards them.