Prophet Muhammad in Zoroastrian and Hindu Scriptures

The following are predictions of the coming Prophet Muhammad as mentioned in the Zoroastrian and Hindu scriptures are based upon 'Abdul Haq Vidyarthi's research presented in Muhammad in World Scripture.

The Zoroastrian Scripture:

Zoroastrianism, the common religion of ancient Persia is also known as Parsi-ism, Magainism, and Fire-worship. The religion itself finds its origins with the Prophet Zoroaster (Greek form of Zarathushtra) of whom little is known. Zoroastrians has been commonly described as a dualistic religion, with two principal gods—Ahura Mazda, the god of wisdom and goodness, and his adversary Angra Mainyu, the god of evil and wickedness. Additionally, there are six minor deities associated with Ahura Mazda who are manifestations of his various qualities. Research into the religion and early texts have discerned the true nature of the religion. Far from a dualistic or polytheistic tradition, Zoroastrianism, in its original form, can only be considered monotheistic. Farhang Mehr, a Zoroastrian, describes his religion in The Zoroastrian Tradition:

Believing in the basic tenets of monotheistic religions--the transcendence and eternity of the creator, revelation, God's message, and life after death with reward and punishment—Zoroastrianism must be classified as a monotheistic religion.

The Zoroastrian holy scriptures have changed over time. The Gathas were the original revelation, which Zoroaster delivered to his people. Only 5 books have survived. The scripture was first written in Gathic; a dead language which is reserved for few scholars only. Later Priests would add to the Gathas, in the Avestan language, to make up the rest of the Zoroastrian holy book, now known as the Avesta (or Zend Avesta). This book was translated by the conquering Sasanids into the Pahlavi tongue. What survives today is estimated to be only a quarter of the original 21 books of the Avesta.

The excerpt displayed here is from a portion of the Avesta known as the Dadistan. The prophecy specifically contained in Sasan 1, verses 54-61:

When such deeds the Persians will commit, a man from among the Arabs will be born, from among the followers of whom, crown and throne, and kingdom and religion of the Persians all shall be overthrown and dissolute. And the arrogant people shall be subjugated. They will see instead of the house of idols and the temple of fire, the house of worship of Abraham without any idols in it; the Qibla. And they will be a mercy for the worlds and then they will capture places of the temples of fire, Madain or Ctesiphon, and of the surrounding places of eminence and sanctity, and their religious leader will be an eloquent man and his message or what he will say will be well connected.

The "sum and substance" of the prophecy can be stated that when the Zoroastrians forsake their religion and their deeds become unprincipled in ignorance, a man will arise in Arabia (a prophet), whose adherents will conquer the arrogant Persians and overrule them. They will turn from idolatry and fire-worship to worship at the House of God, the Ka'ba of Abraham, which will be cleansed of all idols. The followers of this Arabian Prophet will be a "mercy onto the world." This is also the title given to Prophet Muhammad in the Qur'an. The cohorts of this Arab Prophet will become the masters of Persia, Madian, Tus, Balkh, and neighboring territories. Their Prophet will be eloquent in speech and his message will be clear and logical (well connected).

The Hindu Scriptures

The Hindu religion is the predominant religion in India and its influence does not pervade much further. It is a polytheistic religion founded upon three main scriptures—the Vedas, the Upanishads, and the Puranas. The last of these, the Puranas, are the most widely read and easily found of the three sacred writs. The Puranas also appear to be the most authentic because their sanctity is attested to by the highly revered Vedas (which means they must be more ancient than the Vedas). The Penguin Dictionary of Religions states that the Puranas "from part of the real scriptures of the Hindus, in the sense that they have been available to and known by low-caste people whereas the Veda texts were the preserve of the Brahmans." We find in Prati Sarg Parv of Bhavisha Purana (a book from the Puranas), the following passage:

A "malechha" [belongs to a foreign country and speaking a foreign language] spiritual teacher will appear with his companions. His name will be Muhammad. "Raga" after giving this "Maha Dev Arab" [Arab of Angelic character] a bath in the Panchgavya and the Ganges water [and thus purging his sins] offered him the presents of his sincere devotion and showing him all reverence said, 'I make obeisance to thee. ' 'O ye the pride of mankind, the dweller in Arabia, ye have collected a great force to kill the Devil and you yourself have been protected from the "malechha's" opponents.' 'O ye! The image of the Most Pious God the biggest Lord, I am a slave to thee, take me as one lying on thy feet.' (prati Sarg Parv III: 3, 3.5-8)

This prophecy indicates the following points:

  1. The name of the Prophet is clearly stated as Muhammad.
  2. He is said to be from Arabia. The Sanskrit word "marusthal" used in the Prophecy means a sandy tract of land or desert.
  3. Special mention is made of the companions of the Prophet. Indeed, his companions reflected many of the qualities he himself had.
  4. He will be immune from sins, having an angelic character.
  5. The Raja of India will treat him with honor and deference.
  6. The Prophet will be granted protection from his enemies.
  7. He will kill the Devil, root out idol-worship and will do away with all sorts of vices.
  8. The Maharishi claims to be lying at his feet.
  9. He is regarded as the "pride of mankind" (Parabatis Nath)

We can see that both the Zoroastrian and Hindu scripture also give faithful descriptions of Prophet Muhammad. The revelution of the Qur'an and the prophethood of Muhammad are signs and guidance from God for mankind as a whole. In the Qur'an, God Almighty constantly refers to Muhammad in universal terms: "The Seal of the Prophethood," "Mercy to all the Worlds," "Beginner of Glad Tidings" and a "Messenger of God." If we compare the teachings of Muhammad with those of other Prophetic faiths—Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism, we see commonality. However, as Muhammad was to be the last Prophet, it would only seem natural that he should be universal. It is because this—that Muhammad is God's instrument of guidance for the world—that he has been mentioned in many of the previous revelations.

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