That by which the Ummah has been put to trial in current times is the emergence of a people who wear the gown of knowledge, abrogate the Sharee'ah in the name of "revivalism" and facilitate all of the ways to corruption in the name of "understanding the ease and lenience of Islam". And so they opened up evil and despicable avenues in the name of "ijtihaad". Then they belittled the affairs of the Sunnah in the name of the "understanding of priorities" and they also declared their loyalty for the Infidels in the name of "creating a good picture of Islam".
And at the head of them is the mufti known as Yusuf al-Qaradawi who has worked in order to spread this ideology by way of the Internet, lectures, lessons, books and conferences and others ways.
This brief paper is only a summary of some of the ideas and thoughts of this man. We would like to point out that Sheikh Al-Qaradawi has a lot of excellent books that we recommend such as "The Lawful and the Prohibited in Islam" and so forth. However, he has a lot of mistakes that we should mention as a way of sincere advice to the Ummah in order to be free of blame and to warn Muslims from some of his fatwas. We would also like to mention that there is absolutely no comparison between this man and the other individuals mentioned in this section of the site. But we had a problem finding a place for this article so we chose to put it here. May Allah guide our Ummah and forgive our shortcomings.
Sheikh Al-Qaradawi’s Position Towards The Infidels
Sheikh Al-Qaradawi has layed to waste and caused to die the creed of loyalty and disownment (al-walaa al-baraa) with respect to the Kuffaar.
He said about the Christians, "Then all of the affairs are shared between us since we are the sons of a single land, our destination is the same and our Ummah is one. I say about them, ‘Our Christian brothers’ and some people reject this from me and say how can I say that they are our Christian brothers? [Allaah says] "Verily the Believers are but a single brotherhood". Yes, we are believers and they are believers from another angle". (Programme for Sharee’ah and Life, in the lecture Non-Muslims in Light of the Sharee’ah, dated 12/10/97 in Qunaat.) And the lectures and books of this man are replete with this theme, such as what occurs in his book ‘Fataawaa al-Mu’aasarah’, ‘al-Khasaa’is al-Aammah lil-Islaam’ and Malaamih al-Mujta’ma’ al-Muslim’. Likewise, he also fills many of his da’wah programmes with this theme as is well known. Compare this with the saying of Allaah, the Most High, "You will not find anyone who believes in Allaah and the Last day showing friendship for those who resist and oppose Allaah and His Messenger, even if they be their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred…" (Al-Mujadilah 58:22)
He also said in the same gathering, "the Copts (Christians) have offered thousands of "martyrs" (shuhadaa)…".
He said, "The enmity that is between us and the Jews is for the sake of land only, not for the sake of the religion…". (al-Ummah al-Islaamiyyah Haqeeqah, Laa Wahm, p.70). He also corroborated this in his programme, ‘as-Siraa’ Bain al-Muslimeen wal-Yahood’.
He also said concerning the saying of Allaah the Most High, "You will indeed find the most severe in their enmity towards those who believe to be the Jews and the Pagans…" that this is in relation to the circumstances during the era of the Prophet () and is not in relation to the current times. (In the programme, Ash-Sharee’ah wal-Hayaat).
He also used the last part of the verse to justify closeness to the Christians in the current times. (In the lesson entitled, Non-Muslims in the Shade of the Islamic Sharee’ah, which was in the programme, Ash-Sharee’ah wal-Hayaat).
He also affirmed in many places that Islaam – as he claims – reveres the revealed religions. (In the lesson entitled, Deen ul-Bashaa’ir wal-Mubashshiraat, which was in the programme, Ash-Sharee’ah wal-Hayaat, dated 24/1/1999).
And he stated that the adherents of other religions are like the Muslims, due to them is what is due to the Muslims, and upon them is what is upon the Muslims. (Islaam and Secularism, p. 101). He has mentioned this in many of his other lectures and programmes.
And he claims that Jihaad is for the purpose of defending all of the religions not just for Islaam alone. (In the lesson entitled, State Relations, which was in the programme, Ash-Sharee’ah wal-Hayaat).
He also made it permissible to give congratulations to the Infidels on their days of celebration. (In the lesson entitled, Non-Muslims in the Shade of the Islamic Sharee’ah, which was in the programme, Ash-Sharee’ah wal-Hayaat).
Sheikh Al-Qaradawi’S Position Towards Arts and Entertainment
Sheikh Al-Qaradawi is one of well-known and most popular of the callers to singing and entertainment and he affirms this matter from numerous angles:
He affirms in many of his books that singing is lawful, the cinema is lawful (halaal) and is a good thing. (This occurs in his books in general such as "al-Halaal wal-Haraam", "al-Marji’iyyah al-Ulyaa", "Fataawaa Mu’aasirah and others. As for his verdict on the cinema, then he mentions this in "al-Halaal wal-Haraam").
He mentions how he himself likes to follow up the songs of Faayizah Ahmad, Shaadiyah, Umm Kulthoom, Fairoz and other women. (In the Qatari magazine called ar-Raayah, no. 5969, dated 19/Jumaadah al-Ulaa/1419).
This is only a very small selection of the Qaradawite theorem concerning music and singing. One may refer to the abovementioned books for more of his calamities in this regard.
This then is the condition of this Mufti who opposes the Book, the Sunnah, the Pious Taabi’een and the Imaams after them, the Mufti who allows the common-folk to persist upon their ignorance, time-wasting and indulgence in vanities and novelties, which are but instruments of the Accursed One, and which but cause them to forget the remembrance of Allaah.
This is the Mufti who has become the authority on current affairs for many of the Qutubiyyah, biased partisans and other strayers.
Where is this Innovator and where are our Righteous Salaf?! Where are those who defend this man, promote his doctrine and poison the sons of Ahl us-Sunnah with his mental decrepitude, his evil verdicts and his annulment and replacement (tabdeel) of the Sharee’ah rulings?
We conclude by quoting from the excellent work of Abu Bilaal Mustafa al-Kanadi’s book on Music and Singing.
THE VIEW OF THE TABIEEN IMAMS AND SCHOLARS AFTER THEM
The view held by the companions was generally adhered to by the taabieen and their followers, the four imams and the great majority of dependable Islamic scholars up to the present time.From among the tabieen and their followers, there are such authorities as Mujaahid, Ikrimah, An-Nakhai and Al-Hassan Al-Basri.(107)
IMAM ABU HANEEFAH
Imam Abu Haneefah (108) has perhaps the harshest view of the four famous Imams of jurisprudence. His school of thought is the strictest, for he detested singing and considered it sinful. As for his disciples, they have explicitly confirmed the prohibition of listening to all musical amusements and pastimes, including wind instruments (mazaameer) (109) all types of tambourines, hand drums(dufoof) (110) and even the striking of sticks9al-qadeeb).They have asserted that such actions constitute disobedience to Allah and that the performer of such action is sinful, therefore necessitating rejection of his testimony (111). They have further stated that it is incumbent upon the Muslim to struggle to avoid listening to such things, even if he were passing by or stationed near them (without any wilful intention). Abu Haneefah's closest disciple, Abu Yoosuf, stated that if the sound of musical instruments (maazif) and amusements (malaahi) were heard coming from a house, the house could be entered without permission of its owners(112). The justification for this is that the command regarding the prohibition abominable things (munkaaraat) is mandatory, and cannot be established if such entering rests upon the permission of the residents of the premises.This is the madhhab (position) of the rest of the Kufic scholars as well, such as Ibraheem An-Nakhai, Ash-Shabi Hammad and Ath-Thowri. They do not differ on this issue. The same can be said of the general body of jurisprudents of Al-Basrah.(114).
It is related by Ibnul-Jowzi that Ishaaq bin Eesaa At-Tabaa asked Imaam Maalik bin Anas, (115), the leading jurisprudent of Madeenah, about the view of the people of madeenah regarding singing (ghinaa).He replied, "In fact, that is done by the sinful ones." Abut-teeb At-Tabari said, "As for Maalik bin Anas, he truly did prohibit singing and listening to it." He further related that Maalik said, "If one purchased a slave-girl (116) and found her to be a professional singer, he could return her to the original owner for reimbursement on the claim of having found fault in the merchandise."(117) The ruling of prohibition (tahreem) is generally agreed upon by the scholars of Madeenah. The Maaliki jurisprudent and commentator, Al-Qurtubi , reports Ibn Khuwayz Mandaad as saying that Imam Maalik had learned singing and music as a small boy until his mother encouraged him to leave it for a study of the religous sciences. He did, and his view became that such things were prohibited.(118)Al-Qurtubi confirmed Maaliks view by saying that the only exception to this general ruling was the type of innocent songs such as those sung to placate the camels during travel, or during hard labour or boredom or during times of festivity and joy, such as the Eed days and weddings-the latter to the accompaniment of a simple daff (hand drum). Al-Qurtubi then said, "As for that which is done in our day, by way of the (blameworthy) innovations (bidah) of the Sufi mystics in their addition to hearing songs to the accompaniment of melodious instruments such as flutes, string instruments such as flutes, string instruments etc such is haraam(forbidden)(119).
In the book, Aadaabul Qadaa, As-Shafiee is reported as saying, "Verily, song is loathsome (makrooh); it resembles the false and vain thing (al-baatil). The one who partakes of it frequently is an incompetent fool whose testimony is to be rejected."(121) His closest and most knowledgeable disciples clearly stipulate that his position on this issue is that of prohibition (tahreem)and they rebuke those who attribute its legality to him(122) This is confirmed by the later Shafiite scholar, Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami. He related that one of the Ash-Shaafiites disciples, Al-Haarith Al-Muhaasibi (d.243 H) said, "Song is haraam, just as the carcass (maytah)." (123). Further more, the statement that singing is haraam is found in the treatise, Ash-Sharh Al-Kabeer, by the authoritative Shaffiite Scholar, Ar-Raafiee(d.623 H).This is further corroborated by the accomplished Shaaffi’ite jurisprudent, Imam An-Nawawi(d.676 H)in his Rowdah)(124). Such is the correct view of the dependable scholars of the Shaffi’ite madhab. However, due to limited knowledge and personal fancy and desire, a few of their later day scholars disagree with this view.(125)
IMAM AHMAD BIN HANBAL
Imaam Ahmads (126) position regarding this issue has been narrated in detail by the Hanbalite jurisprudent and Quranic commentator, Abul Faraj Ibnul-Jowzi (d.597H.) in his treatise, Tablees Iblees(Sataan's deception).He tells us that ghinaa during Ahmads era consisted primarily of a rhymed, rythmical chanting (inshaad)of poems (127) whose puropse was to lead people to a pious, abstentious way of life.However, when such chanters began to vary their simple style to one of a throbbing, affected melody, the narrations regarding Ahmad began to differ.His own son and student , Abdullah, relates that his father said, "Singing (128) sprouts hypocricy in the heart;it doesnt please me."The scholar, Ismaeel bin Ishaaq ath Thaqafi, reports that Ahmad was questioned regarding ones listening to those poems (qasaaid) to whichhe replied, "I despise it, for it is a bidaah(innovation).Dont sit down to listen to its reciters.'Abul-Haarith relates that Ahmad said, "At-Taghyeer (129) is an innovation"whereupon it was said, "But it sensitizes and softens the heart".Ahmad rejoined, "It is a bidaah (blameworthy innovation)." Yaqoob Al-Haashimi narrates that Ahmad said, "At-taghyeer is a recent innovation" and Yaqoob bin Gayyath reports him a s saying that he despised at-taghyeer and prohibited ones listening to it.(130)
Ibnul-Jowzi then mentioned some narrations related by Abu Bakr Al-Khlallaal and Ahmads son Saalih, which indicate Ahmads not being averse to poetry sessions. It is related that Ahmad heard a singer(qawwal) and didn’t reproach him, whereupon Saalih said to him, "Oh father, didn’t you used to criticise and censure such a thing?" Ahmad replied, "That was because I was told that they were doing reproachable things, so I despised it; as for this, I do not dislike it" Ibnul-Jowzi commented at this point, "Some of the scholars of our (Hanbalite) school mention that Abu Bakr Al-Khallaal (d.311 H) and his disciple, Abdul-Azeez, permitted singing(ghinaa).Such a statement refers to the spiritual poems (qasaaid zuhduyyaat) which were prevalent during their time. This is precisely the type of singing which was not disliked by Ahmad(as previously mentioned)" (131).
Ahmad bin Hanbal attests to this in the instance where he was asked regarding a deceased person who left behind him a son and a professional singing) slave-girl(132). The son then needed to sell her.Ahmad said that she was not to be sold on the basis of her being a singer.Upon this it was said to him that, (as a singer), she was worth, 30000 dirhams, whereas if she were sold only on the basis of her being simply a slave-girl"Ibnul Jowzi explained, "The reason Ahmad said this is because the singing slave-girl doesnt sing spiritual poems(qasaaid zuhdiyaat);rather she sings throbbing lyrics which incite passion in ones being.This is proof that such singing is haraam, for if it were not so, the incurred loss of the orphans sons wealth would not be permissible(133). Furthermore, it is reported by the jurisprudent Al-Marwazi that Ahmad bin Hanbal said, "The earnings of the effeminate (mukhannath) singer are foul (khabeeth) because he doesn’t sing spiritual poems, but rather, he sings erotic poetry(al-ghazal)in a licentious , cooing manner."
Ibnul-Jowzi concluded that it is obvious from what has preceded that the variant narrations relating to Ahmads dislike of( karaahah)or permission for singing depended upon the type of singing that was meant. As for the type of singing which is popular today, (134)it would be forbidden according to Ahmads view. If only he could see what the people have added to it by way of innovation.(135)
In conclusion, the general consensus of the companions, Taabieen and the following generations of Islamic scholars up to the present day, including the four Imams , points to the ruling of prohibition of music and song (other than the exceptions to be mentioned later)
(107) See pp.67-68 of Kaffur Raa;Al-Qurtubis tafseer, vol.19, p.51 and Shaykh Saalih Fowzaans Al-Ilaam bi Naqdi Kitaabil Hallaali wal Haraam, pp.72-74.
(108) The first of the four famous imaams.He was bron in koofa, Iraq in the 80th year of the Hijrah.He died in Baghdad in the year 150H see Adh-Dhahabis Seeyar Alaamin Nubalaa , vol.6, pp.390-403.
(109) Such as flutes, pipes, horns and related wind instruments.
(110) Small hand drums without steel jangles.This permitted type is to be used on certain restricted occassions as designated by the sunnah, the details of which will follow.
(111) Testimony given by witnesses concerning matters or crimes involving punishments is only accepted from trustworthy, obedient Muslims.
(112) In shariah, the mere suspicion of vice is not sufficient to warranat invasion of privacy by the authorities.Here, however, the violation is not confined to the privacy of the home and should be prevented, even forcibly, to avoid corruption of society.
(113) Quoted from "Ownul Mabood Sharhu Sunan Abi Dawood", vol.13, pp.273-274.
(114) Stated by Abut Teeb Taahir At-Tabari and quoted in Al-Qurtubis Al-Jaamili Ahkaamil Quraan, vol.14, p.55.
(115) He was born at Madeenah in the year 93 of the Hijrah and died there in 179H.For details of his life and times, see Qaadi Ayyads Tarteebul Madaarik, vol.1, pp.107-147.
(116) In the time of Prophet Muhammad (), the world economy was almost completely based upon the institution of slavery. Wisdom and foresight demanded a gradual elimination of this deeply rooted social system. The Islamic method was to limit the ways in which slaves could be taken to only one-jihaad(lawful warfare), while at the same time imposing conditions under which a slave must be freed and encouraging the freeing of believing slaves as an act of worship which brings one closer to Allah. Mistreatment of slaves was strictly prohibited and they were always entitled to respect as human beings. These guidelines protecting slaves are still applicable today.
(117) The previous sayings related to Maalik were quoted from Ibnul-Jowzis Talbees, p.29.
(118) Al-Jaamili Ahkaamil Quraan, vol.14, p.55
(119) Ibid, vol.14, p.54.
(120) He was born 150 H In Gazzah in Palestine. He died and was buried in Cairo, 204 H. Details of his life and works are chronicled in Al-Bayhaqis Manaaqibush Shaafiee.
(121) See Al-Qurtubis tafseer, vol.14, p.55 and Ibnul-Jowzis Talbees Iblees, p.231.Also refer to footnote no.111.
(122) See Ownul Mabood, vol.13, p.274.
(123) Designates the carcass of the animal which has not been slaughetered in a manner acceptable to the shariah, but has died in a manner rendering it unlawful for food, such as dying from a disease, accident, naturally or by being hit by a blow, etc. However, the skin of such an animal may be used after proper curing.
(124) Kaffur Raaa.p.61.
(125) Talbees iblees, pp.230-231.A sample of such scholars along with a refutation of their position will follow in the next section of this work.
(126) He was born in Baghdad, 164 H and died there in 241 H.See the excellent biography of his life
(127) In Arabic these are called qasaaiduz zuhd.
(128) "Singing" here means without musical accompaniment.
(129) Indicates a change in the state of mind or disposition of a person who appears "overcome" by the mention (dhikr) of God in supplication (duaa) performed in a humble, humiliating stance. Those who partake in this experience of being "overcome" are moved to extreme delight or grief by the manner in which such poetry is delivered.It is usually delivered in an affected, throbbing style which moves them to dance and gyrate to the beat and melody of such rythmic poems. Because of this "change' (taghyeer) which overcomes them, they were called al-mughayyarah. Refer to Talbees Iblees, p.330.
(130) Talbees Iblees, p.228.
(131) All of these scholars, including Ahmad, didn’t not mind a certain type of chanting, singing and recitation of poetry or stories, etc without musical accompaniment or other prohibited aspects.
(132) Refer to footnote no.116.
(133) The loss incurred by selling the slave girl not as singer but as an ordinary worker.
(134) This statement was made during the 6th century of the Islamic era. Therefore, what could be said of what we hear and see of music and singing today!
(135) Talbees Iblees, pp.228-229.
The Mufti Makes The Creation More Knowledgeable Than The Creator
Some reliable students of knowledge had informed us that they had heard directly from a cassette the saying of Sheikh Al-Qaradawi that if Allaah had partaken in elections (i.e. became a candidate) he would not have won with such a victory that Netanyahu had won in Israel, since the latter took 99% of the votes.
The actual text of his words are as follows (in the second part of a Friday khutbah), "Before I leave this station of mine (i.e. from giving this khutbah) I love that I should say a word about the results of the Israeli elections. The Arabs, all of them, were placing their hopes in the victory of Barleen, however he lost and this is what we praise about Israel. We desire and hope that our country can be like this country. Due to only a small number of people, the one who was actually ruling lost his position. There was not 94% or 95% (of votes) which is what we are accustomed to in our country, but 99%, (yes) 99%. If Allaah had presented himself to the people as a candidate he would not have been able to take this amount… we welcome Israel for what it has accomplished…"
These words are clear and manifest misguidance. If he wished to make a Jew superior to Allaah, free is He from imperfection, the Most High, then he is a disbeliever (i.e. apostate). And if he intended that the Jews and Christians and the worshippers of the cow and chickens and others are very many in number yet they do not vote for Allaah, then this is another matter, however it is still clear misguidance (on al-Qaradawi’s behalf).
For verily our Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, is not in need of voting, for He, free is He of all imperfection is the one who says "Be" to something and it is. He is the one who destroyed Fir’aun, and He destroyed Qaarun, and He destroyed many nations, from amongst those who exceeded beyond bounds and who stood in the faces of the Prophets of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So he aided the Prophets and gave them victory, in this life and the next. Voting is only needed by a weak man, O Pauper!…. Have you disbelieved O Qaradawi or have you brought yourself nearer.
Stated Shaikh Ibn Uthaimeen after these words were played to him, "I seek refuge in Allaah. It is obligatory for this person to repent. And if he does not he should be killed as an apostate, since he made the creation more knowledgeable than the Creator. It is upon him to repent to Allaah, so if he repents, then Allaah forgives the sins of His servants. And if not then the Wullaat ul-Amr should strike his neck (with the sword)." (Cassette Recording).
The Mufti Only Affirms Defensive Jihaad
Stated the Mufti (may Allah guide him): "Some people say to us that you desire to have discussions with the Christians and others in order to arrive at what you call "World Peace"? So we reply to them "Yes, and why not!" They say because the basis and foundation concerning the relationship of the Muslims to those besides them is Jihad and it is not just peace. And this view actually exists, yet we do not subscribe to it." (al-Islaam wal-Gharb, p.16).
And he also says, "The issue of Jihaad in the path of Allaah for defending the land, the honours (of people) and the sanctities is a matter in which there is no further discussion. But as for defence for the sake of attacking the rest of the world, as some people imagine, is not a matter that is mentioned. And we actually base our position and build upon it based upon what the contemporary Scholars of the Muslims have held as their position, the likes of Shaikh Abu Zahrah, Shaikh Rasheed Ridaa, Shaikh Shaltut, Shaikh Abdullaah Daaraz and Shaikh al-Ghazaali. And all of those are of the view that Jihaad in Islaam is for the sake of defence of the religion and the state, the sanctities, the land and the honours of people…. And it is not for military expeditions as some of the people imagine…" (al-Islaam wal-Gharb, p.19)
And the Mufti also opined, "We do not fight the Jews for the sake of Aqidah, we fight them for the sake of the land. And we do not fight the Kuffar because they are Kuffar, but because they have occupied our lands and our homes and have taken them without any due right" (ar-Raayah magazine, no. 4696, 24th Sha’baan 1995).
And as for these statements then they are the resultant effects of the Qaradawite theorem of loyalty and disownment (al-walaa wal-baraa) – as the author of ‘Raf’ al-Lathaam’, Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Mansoor al-‘Adeeni has stated in his refutation of this Mufti.
Now, any Sunni knows that the purpose of Jihaad is to make the word of Allaah supreme, and that is none other than worshipping Him alone, and establishing and spreading Tawheed. So if the Qaradawite Think Tank and its theoreticians claim that this is not the motive and reason, and it is but land, then the land in the view of Qaradawite Thought, is more lofty and more noble and more worthy than the Islamic Aqidah.
Stated the Lord of Majesty and Honour, "Fight against those who believe not in Allâh, nor in the Last Day, nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allâh and His Messenger and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islâm) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued." (At-Tawbah 9:29)
And the Messenger () said, "I have been ordered to fight the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah alone…" (Muslim)
As for Ahl ul-Hadeeth wal-Athar then they opine that Jihaad will continue until the establishment of the Hour, behind the leaders, sinful or pious. They also hold that defensive Jihaad is recurring and may be performed by small bands of individuals anytime, anywhere, in defence of those who are oppressed and wronged.